xu-tri-dung-tai-nha-khi-tre-bi-sot-xuat-huyet

The right way to do at home when your child has dengue

Content is translated from Vietnamese into English by Google Translate

Every year, the health sector also organizes many campaigns to prevent dengue fever, information dissemination, causes and ways to prevent people, however, the number of cases has not decreased and translated The disease is continually occurring every year (before 3-4 years ago the epidemic broke out).

Tip-on-home-when-bamboo-sot-thrift

The “dead” mistake

Dr Le Bich Lien (Head of Dengue Department, Children’s Hospital 1) said: “Some children with dengue fever in very severe conditions to be admitted to hospital. One of the reasons for this mistake is due to the subjective family, see their children express hot sauce immediately outside the pharmacy to buy drugs. Until you have not finished fever, change the drug, or increase the dose by adding Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Dexa … This led to the diagnosis of dengue fever may be delayed and heavier because of improper use of drugs. Not only that, children may also have dangerous complications such as drug poisoning, gastrointestinal bleeding, drug hepatitis … “

In addition to voluntarily administering the drug, some families reduce the fever by cutting down blood poisoning (using a knife to cut into the skin). Mistakes on the baby not help fever but also cuts bleeding, infections and bruises.

Taking the wind, lemon juice, alcohol used all over the body … should not be applied, because these will affect the child can cause severe choking, alcohol poisoning.

The most dangerous is thinking “the fever is not coming to the disease”, remember that in dengue fever fever is also the time to go to heavier stage (vomiting, vomiting). Treatment will be more difficult and the risk of death in the higher child.

Properly managed at home

Diagnosing dengue fever is difficult and confusing to other diseases. So the best way to see a baby with a high fever for two days or more and bleeding is to think about it and take him or her to the hospital.
“But not all cases of dengue must be hospitalized. 70% of cases of mild dengue fever can be treated, followed up at home, “said Lien.

The first thing is to reduce the fever for the baby by taking medication as instructed by the doctor and clean. When cleaning, pay attention to the warm water in the armpits, groin. Mop fast in the chest, back because these two places easily lead to pneumonia.

Children who are sick, should be encouraged to eat, drink plenty of water (cool boiling water, orange, lemon, coconut …). Parents should also remember not to eat or drink dark foods that are difficult to distinguish from the color of blood when a child vomits or goes out.

Where children with high fever lead to convulsions, how to manage? BS recommends, first of all, parents must be really calm, so that the child lies on the soft plane, should not put anything into the child’s mouth because the child will choke. Next is to cool off and reduce fever, if applied properly will take off after 2 to 5 minutes.

Always stay with the child to monitor the course of the disease, detecting signs of severe haemorrhagic fever (eg vomiting, abdominal pain, irritability, crying, cold hands, violet, sweating; Nose bleeding, bleeding of the roots, vomiting and bloody bowel movements.

“The culprit” of dengue is a female mosquito that lives in the house, spawning in water containers, so that mosquitoes may be exposed to mosquitoes during the day or in the dark. To prevent the disease should actively kill mosquitoes, lusts; Sleep even during the day.
Dengue prevention is not just about your family, it’s about propaganda for the neighborhood and the community.

Source: vietnamnet

Muoi van gay benh sot xuat huyet va zika

What is the difference between Zika and Dengue virus disease?

Content is translated from Vietnamese into English by Google Translate

Zika and dengue are all spread by mosquitoes. However, these two diseases also have different manifestations and levels of danger.

Want to go out and play

Illustration. Photo Source: Sci-News.com

* Symptom:

Compared with dengue fever, the disease is milder, with 80% less disease. However, when infected, patients with Zika virus and dengue fever show high fever, fatigue, headache, rash, muscle pain, joints. However, the difference is that patients with the Zika virus may have more symptoms of eye pain. Another difference is that patients with dengue often have higher fever as well as more aching muscles, especially with specific manifestations such as subcutaneous hemorrhage, nasal bleeding, visceral bleeding.

* Danger:

If dengue fever is usually quite serious, which can cause severe complications leading to death, fever due to Zika virus has not recorded any death, but Zika virus can affect pregnant women and have It is associated with small brain syndrome, polycystic neovascular syndrome in fetus.

*Prevention:

Zika viral diseases, as well as dengue fever, do not currently have specific drugs or vaccines. Therefore, the most effective preventive measure is to destroy the mediating medium by: Minimizing areas of standing water, covering water containers; Frequent clearing of bushes, clean house hygiene, using mosquito nets, spraying mosquitoes on a large scale.

In addition, people who are living in areas with epidemics as well as people who move between regions, pregnant women should be noted to avoid mosquito bites: use mosquito bites, sleep apnea; Wear long clothing to prevent mosquito bites even during the day.

According to VTV.vn

bien-chung-khung-khiep-cua-benh-viem-nao-nhat-ban

Japanese encephalitis: understand, prevent diseases to avoid death for children

Content is translated from Vietnamese into English by Google Translate

Bien shared the framework of Benh Nhat Ban

Disease Japanese encephalitis is an acute viral infection, damage the central nervous system. This disease is common in children under the age of 15. Disease caused by encephalitis virus in Japan.

Bien shared the framework of Benh Nhat Ban-Hinh-2

The disease was first detected in Japan with the manifestation of encephalitis – meningoencephalitis, many people suffering from, very high death.

Bien shared the framework of Benh Nhat Ban-Hinh-3

In our country, Japanese encephalitis is seasonal. The disease usually occurs from April to October is the summer time, more rain in the North. Peak of the flu usually in June, July every year.

Bien shared the framework of Benh Nhat Ban-Hinh-4

Japanese encephalitis is spread by blood, mosquitoes bite the blood of infected animals, then burn healthy people and transmit the virus to humans. The virus is transmitted through the bite of the female mosquito, from the salivary gland that contains the virus.

Bien shared the framework of Benh Nhat Ban-Hinh-5

After the mosquito-borne virus is transmitted to humans, the virus particles multiply under the skin, which then travels into the bloodstream and causes disease. Female mosquitoes infected with the Japanese encephalitis virus have the potential to transmit life-long illnesses, and can transmit the virus to the next generation through eggs.

Bien shared the framework of Benh Nhat Ban-Hinh-6

Japanese encephalitis can not be transmitted directly from person to person. Sharing food, sharing furniture, close contact with patients does not spread the disease.

Bien shared the framework of Benh Nhat Ban-Hinh-7

Children infected with encephalitis virus in Japan after 4-8 days of incubation will have flu-like symptoms, manifestations: mild fever, runny nose, diarrhea, tremor, headache, vomiting … some children may have Psychological disorder Infected children are often poorly fed. In severe cases, the child may have convulsions, epilepsy, high fever of 39-40 degrees Celsius.

Bien shared the framework of Benh Nhat Ban-Hinh-8

The Japanese encephalitis virus attacks the central nervous system causing congestion, swelling and microscopic hemorrhage in the brain. It can damage nerve cells, brain tissue degeneration, embolism; It mainly occurs in gray matter, the middle brain and brain stem leading to acute brain syndrome.

Bien shared the framework of Benh Nhat Ban-Hinh-9

After 2-3 days to 1 week, the disease can not be diagnosed, the child may have sensory disturbances, high fever, vomiting, stiff neck, delirium, hallucinations, seizures, seizures, Mesothelioma, disease progression will be increasingly severe and can lead to death.

Bien shared the framework of Benh Nhat Ban-Hinh-10

If there are signs of suspicion of children with signs should be hospitalized as soon as possible to detect early disease, avoid complications.

Bien shared the framework of Benh Nhat Ban-Hinh-11

According to statistics, about 30% of encephalitis patients in Japan hospitalized died. Of the survivors, 30-45% of children with severe neurological and mental disorders.

Bien shared the framework of Benh Nhat Ban-Hinh-12

Children who detect early disease, timely treatment, the disease will gradually reduce and less likely sequelae.

Bien shared the framework of Benh Nhat Ban-Hinh-13

Although extremely dangerous, but encephalitis Japanese can completely prevent. When sleeping, mosquito nets are used for mosquito bites, mosquito nets for all doors, windows. When working outside at night, wear long clothes, socks. It is necessary to clear or fill the sewers and ponds around the house to limit mosquitoes.

Bien shared the framework of Benh Nhat Ban-Hinh-14

It is especially important to have a child vaccinated against encephalitis to prevent it.

Source: kienthuc.net.vn

Dịch sốt rét

Terrible devastation in the history of malaria

Content is translated from Vietnamese into English by Google Translate

Malaria is one of the oldest pandemics. This translation is the direct or direct factor of the tremendous changes in history. The World Health Organization estimates that in 2013, more than 198 million people are infected with malaria and about 584,000 people die from the disease. About five out of every five people die under the age of five. The disease is a threat to about a hundred countries and territories around the world, which is endangering some 3.2 billion people.

Malaria was the cause of the Roman conquest

It is assumed that malaria was one of the major causes of the collapse of the ancient Roman Empire. In the records of the book show that the ancient Egyptians deal with symptoms similar to the disease from 3,500 years ago. By 1880, new malaria parasites were discovered.

Now with the great advancement of world medicine, people can completely cure malaria in some countries like the United States. But there are still 660,000 people dying every year and 200 million people affected by the epidemic.

By 2016, nearly half of the world’s population is at risk. Malaria is considered a disease that coexists with the development of humanity. In fact, anyone can be infected with the disease, which means that the disease has a great impact on important human histories.

What is malaria and how does malaria cause mass deaths: Pandemic causes the Roman Empire to fail?

In 476 AD, the Roman Empire collapsed. This fall was supposed to have begun around 184 AD, after the death of Emperor Marcus Aurelius.

There are many views that explain the collapse of this mighty empire, one of which is supported by DNA evidence that is malaria. In 2001, researchers conducted DNA testing on human bones believed to be around 450 AD (just before the decline of Rome), which showed signs of malaria.

This means that malaria has appeared in the Roman Empire at this time. This correlates with the theory that a major pandemic attacked the citizens of the Roman Empire, leading to the demise of a civilization.

Malaria – the cause of extinction of the dinosaurs

About 66 million years ago a mass extinction occurred, killing 80% of life on Earth, in which the ancient dinosaurs suffered the most. So far there has been much debate among researchers about the cause of extinction of dinosaurs.

Many argue that this is due to the volcanic activity and large geological motions caused. But the latest research from a college of science at Oregon State University states that fossil evidence of dinosaurs found by archaeologists shows mosquito bites transmitted by mosquitoes It was 20 million years ago and they burned dinosaurs, at least 100 million years ago, and even more. The evidence found in fossil insects, particularly the fossil species preserved in amber, prompts entomologist George Poinar Jr. to argue that malaria has contributed significantly to extinction. Dinosaurs about 65 million years ago.

The formation of the United Kingdom

In 1698, Scottish people had spent seven years of horrific famine and had just emerged from a nearly decade-long war in which many people were lined up on many streets. In search of a new life, in the fall of 1698, 1,700 Scots were sent to explore Damien, a land of Panama. On the way to this expedition, about 70 people died.

But, in the spring of 1699, persistent rains led to a dramatic increase in the number of mosquitoes in Damien, resulting in hundreds of deaths from malaria. Of the 1,700 scottish scouts, only 300 were left. In August 1699, a second expedition departed, but as with the predecessor, only a few returned.

The expedition found a new land that completely failed to make Scotland suffer heavy losses on people and property. At the same time, it also dealt a powerful blow to the state executive apparatus. In 1707, Scotland became a member of the United Kingdom, in return, Britain agreed to pay off debts to Scotland. To this day, it is believed that Scotland’s entry into the United Kingdom was the result of the Damien expedition.

Victory of the American Revolution

European settlers in South Carolina have developed wetland agriculture. Climate conditions and the characteristics of agricultural cultivation make it a place to live and develop mosquitoes. “Carolina is a paradise in the spring, hell in the summer, and a hospital in the fall,” showing the severity of the malaria that raged here.

In the American Revolutionary War, in 1779, the British decided to conduct the conquest of the South, led by General Charles Cornwallis. Initially, the war won many victories but in the summer and fall of 1780, all of their armies suffered heavy losses from malaria. Finally, they were forced to flee from Carolina. In the middle of the summer of 1781, General Cornwallis and all of the 8,000 soldiers stationed in Yorktown were surrendered to the US military for not having the fighting capacity after experiencing the previous malaria epidemic.

The surrender at Yorktown was essentially the decisive factor leading to the end of the war between the United Kingdom and the American colony. In 1782, the peace talks and the Treaty of Paris were signed, and by September 1783, the complete end of the eight-year war and the United States regained total independence.

The forerunner of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

This is a division of the US Department of Health and Human Services, based in DeKalb County, Georgia, USA. CDC focuses on the development and application of disease prevention and control systems, especially infectious diseases, environmental health, occupational health, etc. Prior to its current function, the CDC A source from a wartime agency, the anti-malaria agency at war zones. Initially, the mission of this agency was to participate in anti-malarial DDT pesticides and control of the epidemic area. Then, the CDC’s mission extends from malaria control to sexually transmitted disease and develops into injury prevention, labor safety, and so on.

Widely used DDT pesticides

In 1939, Swedish physician and pharmacist Paul Heramm Muller confirmed that DDT is a good chemical for pesticide and not harmful to humans. As soon as it emerges, DDT has proven to be a phytopathogen in plant protection, which acts immediately on insect pests, extinguishes malaria and aphids. During World War II, the US military used DDT to kill mosquitoes, thereby eliminating malaria. After World War II, the use of DDT became more popular around the world. The results showed that in 1946 there were 400,000 cases of malaria but in 1950 almost no new cases were recorded. However, later it was found that DDT has a negative impact on the environment and wildlife as well as humans. Therefore, the pesticide has been banned in the United States since 1972,

By vnkhampha.com

sot ret khi mang thai

Malaria in children and pregnant women

Content is translated from Vietnamese into English by Google Translate

Malaria in children

There are many types of malaria in children. Congenital heart disease is very rare, often caused by pregnant mothers infected with malaria parasite. This parasite from the mother’s blood through the placenta to the fetus. It is easy to cause miscarriage, premature birth, fetal malnutrition; Infants born with pallid anemia, liver and spleen, jaundice and mucous membranes, easy to die. Malaria in infants occurs when a child is infected with mosquito bites. Late symptoms (usually 3-4 weeks postpartum), atypical but also when children with fever continuously, coma seizures, diarrhea. Prognosis is very bad, high mortality.

Malaria is more prevalent in children older than 6 months (especially 4-5 years) who live in areas with malaria outbreaks. Fever is usually atypical, children often have febrile convulsions due to high fever, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, rash, cough, bronchitis. Children are more likely to suffer from malnutrition, physical retardation. A child with signs and symptoms of malaria may have early symptoms such as irritability, drowsiness, poor appetite and sleep problems. Symptoms that follow are usually chills, followed by fever and shortness of breath. Fever may be elevated slowly for 1 or 2 days or may rise dramatically to 105 degrees Celsius or higher. Then, when the fever and hypothermia quickly return to normal, the child starts to sweat a lot.

Symptoms of chills, fever, sweating often repeated on the body of children from 2 to 3 days, depending on the type of malaria parasite that is contagious. Because many early symptoms are not obvious, many families do not detect their child with malaria and are confused with other common febrile illnesses.

Malaria in older children is usually characterized by febrile convulsions, consisting of three stages, beginning with tremor, followed by fever, followed by perspiration and fever. Fever may be episodic (if due to P. vivax) or daily (if due to P.falciparum). Accompany fever, pale, anemia and hepatomegaly.

The best way to prevent this disease is to avoid mosquito bites, to sleep on mosquito nets, including daytime, environmental hygiene, bushes clearing, and water containers so mosquitoes can not lay eggs. Families in malaria areas should be treated with antiretroviral drugs. In terms of treatment, in addition to prescribed antimalarials, attention should be paid to paracetamol for fever, high blood pressure, good nutrition and easy digestion.

Malaria in pregnant women

Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria because their immune system is drastically reduced during pregnancy, pregnant women with malaria are more susceptible to anemia, hypoglycaemia and fetal distress, and fetal death .

The consequences of malaria among pregnant women are extremely terrible. For fetuses, mothers with malaria will increase the risk of miscarriage, premature labor, postpartum postpartum miscarriage, births of low birth weight infants, and delayed development at an early stage. Low birth weight babies are a cause of infant mortality. Currently, new approaches are emerging that are expected to reduce the burden of malaria on pregnant women and improve the health of mothers and children.

In case of malaria, pregnant women are more likely to be infected with other bacteria (pneumonia, meningitis, urinary tract infections); At birth, acute pulmonary edema, heart failure; Can cause malaria infection in the fetus (congenital malaria) …

Pregnant women suffering from malaria are more prone to miscarriage, fetal distress, premature birth, which is a consequence of the disease itself rather than the drug itself. Pregnant women should be aware of this, peace of mind treatment, anticipation, timely treatment, avoid the wrong questions when the event occurs coincide with the time of drug use.

Treatment of malaria in pregnant women is extremely urgent. When pregnant women are not in labor, they need medical treatment, resuscitation and there is no need for specialized obstetric intervention, but only for fever-reducing medicines to prevent uterine contractions. When the signs of labor, to early amniotomy to conduct the operation to remove the fetus. At the time of conception, qualified, support Forceps to conceive; Restrict cesarean delivery if needed. Follow up to 24/24 hours to prevent postpartum hemorrhage due to possible coagulant dysfunction and to prepare fresh blood for co-workers, fibrinogen, hemocaprol, EACA (Epsilon Amino Caproid Acid) for the management of pregnancy. .

Particularly for pregnant women, the principle of malaria treatment is very important, if not careful can lead to unreasonable death of the fetus.

Early treatment, proper and adequate doses: Treatment of malaria mosaic and anti-infective treatment for P. falciparum malaria and P. vivax malaria (malaria eradication). In cases where p.falciparum is not used as a single antimalarial drug, combination therapy should be used to limit drug resistance and increase efficacy. Specific antimalarial drug treatment combined with supportive treatment and improvement of the condition: Malignant malaria cases must be transferred to the emergency unit of the hospital from the district level upwards, monitored closely and intensive care.

Women who suffer from anemia or hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia, acute pulmonary edema, are susceptible to malignant malaria, should be treated promptly. To cope with malaria, pregnant women with malaria are more susceptible to transplant, premature birth, stillbirth and death. Therefore, it is necessary to actively treat the malaria parasite and to combine the treatment of symptoms and complications. In addition, treatment supports high fever, hypothermia, shock seizures, shock management, hypoglycemia, treatment of hemoglobin. After birth, good maternal care facilities and regimen should be prepared because mothers with malignant malaria are predominantly premature, malnourished, or dead.

Malignant malaria often threatens the health, the lives of pregnant women and infants. The obstetric complications such as bleeding, infection often occur. Therefore, it is necessary to transfer to the higher level with good treatment and resuscitation conditions so as to reduce the mortality rate for pregnant women and newborns, thus contributing to the health care and safe motherhood management.

By vnkhampha.com

6-hieu-nham-chet-nguoi-ve-benh-sot-xuat-huyet

How dangerous is Anopheles mosquito disease?

Content is translated from Vietnamese into English by Google Translate

What is malaria?

Malaria, also known as water fall, is a disease caused by Llasmodium parasites. The cause of transmission from person to person is the Anopheles mosquito. Malaria is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. It is estimated that about 515 million people suffer from the disease each year, with between one and three million deaths. Most children in southern Sahara, Africa are infected with malaria. At times malaria became a pandemic that the world could not control. More than 90% of deaths occur in Africa. Malaria is often accompanied by poverty, hunger, backwardness and a pandemic that hinders the development of the economy.

Malaria is one of the most common infectious diseases and is a serious public health problem. The disease is caused by the protozoa parasite of the genus Plasmodium. This genus has four species of human infection. The most dangerous are Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The other two species (Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae) are also pathogenic but less fatal. The group of Plasmodium species causing human disease is commonly referred to as the malaria parasite. P. knowlesi, commonly known in Southeast Asia, causes monkey malaria, but can also cause severe infections in humans.

The clinical manifestation is febrile convulsion with 3 stages: cold, hot and perspiration; Periodic fever and usually accompanied by anemia, splenomegaly. Clinical manifestations of malaria varied greatly with the forms of: cold-bearing, primary, recurrent, malaria, malaria, malaria. Occasionally, this symptom recurs every 48 to 72 hours, depending on the type of parasite and the length of time the infection takes place.

More about malaria parasites: they have the scientific name Plasmodium, which is a single-celled parasite. Parasite malaria is a common parasitic compulsion on the organism to survive and develop. Chi Plasmodium was described by Ettore Marchiasfava and Angelo Cell in 1885. Currently, 200 species of this genus have been discovered, and new species are slowly being depicted. Of the more than 200 known species of the genus Plasmodium, at least 11 species of parasites in humans. Other species are parasitic on other animals, including monkeys, rodents, birds and reptiles. These parasites always have two hosts in their life cycle: a mosquito host and a vertebrate host.

Out of the body, the malaria parasite needs to be cultured in a special way or kept at a cold temperature to sustain life. When they enter the human body, they are intracellular parasites, in particular in hepatocytes or in the liver. They are also the cause of malaria. The life span of the malaria parasite is short but they reproduce rapidly and are therefore more prolonged in the body [3]. Plasmodium has two modes of reproduction, asexual reproduction in the host (human or other animals) and sexual reproduction in the host Anopheles mosquito. Plasmodium has a simple structure, the body consists mainly of nuclei, protoplasts and other components, they do not have vacuole, so all the activities are carried out through the cell membrane, Plasmodium cells usually have to be fixed.

There are many parasitic malaria parasites in the human body, they have different morphologies and habitats, some of which are: P. falciparum: more common in tropical climate with hot, humid weather The annual average temperature is relatively high. This type of malaria is common in Asia (especially in Southeast Asia), Africa, Latin America and less common in Europe. Rarely, P. falciparum is found in high places; P. vivax: Occur in Europe, while Asia and Africa are found only in some places; P.malariae: Occur more in Europe, Africa, less in America, Asia is very rare; P.ovale: Generally rare in the world, predominantly in central Africa.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) malaria classifications, malaria is divided into two clinical levels: common malaria (uncomplicated malaria) and malaria (fever). Cold with complications). Malaria parasites enter the human body in three ways, first by mosquitoes (this is the most common pathway), the second is through blood, the last is through the placenta. In addition, injecting drug users sharing needles and syringes can also easily contract the disease.

Malaria spreads rapidly, because they are the primary anopheles mosquitoes into human blood, so they find their way into the hepatocytes of infected people and proliferate here. When a liver cell ruptures, the parasite exits, invades the red blood cell and continues to proliferate there. When a red blood cell breaks down, the parasite exits and continues to infiltrate into other red blood cells. The cycle enters the red blood cells, and then the red blood cells break down. Every time the red blood cell ruptures, the person usually has fever symptoms.

Signs and symptoms

Signs and symptoms of specific malaria begin to appear from days 8 to 25 after infection. However, symptoms may show later than those using anti-malarial drugs. The primary manifestations of the disease are all flu-like symptoms, and may be similar to other infections, enteritis, and viral illness.

The typical symptom of malaria is playfulness, which is the cyclical occurrence of sudden chills followed by tremor and then fever and sweating, which occur every two days for infection of the species. P. vivax and P. ovale, and every three days for P. malariae infection. P. falciparum infection can cause recurrent fever every 36-48 hours or less markedly and almost always. Severe malaria is usually caused by P. falciparum. Symptoms of falciparal malaria develop 9-30 days after infection. Persons with cerebral malaria often exhibit neurological symptoms such as abnormal behavior, cardiac tremor, conjugate gaze palsy, opisthotonus, or coma.

Furthermore, the symptoms of malaria may be severe and mild depending on the locomotum and immunity of the sick and divided into periods. Malaria in the incubation period, which lasts from 9 to 30 days, may vary depending on the severity or severity and the variability of each parasite. At the onset of illness, the early stage of malaria is characterized by the presence of patients in this stage is the patient suffering pain in the joints, muscles, people show signs of malaria, followed by patients with fever. High can be up to 39-40oC. The second stage of the malaria period: the duration lasts for about 2 weeks, the patient shows signs of malaria, fever is a continuous cycle of fever and usually lasts from 6-12h. Symptoms of sweating, depression, digestive disorders, fatigue …. People with frequent malaria will be accompanied by symptoms such as chronic anemia with visible signs of dizziness, bluish skin and exhaustion. Malignant disease during illness, the patient no longer any signs of the above two periods and the parasite in the patient’s body is treated thoroughly. For people with malaria often need to follow the patient for several years to treatment until no more parasites appear in the body anymore.

Malaria has two types, malaria and malignant malaria. Benign malaria is usually milder and relatively easy to cope. Malignant malaria is very serious and can sometimes be fatal.

Malignant malaria, the scientific name is Benign malaria, the most common symptom of the disease is high fever. However, without fever does not mean that there is no malaria. Other symptoms of the disease such as aching, muscle pain, abdominal pain, cough, feeling tired. Young children, more diarrhea and vomiting. If you use anti-malarial drugs, you may have different symptoms like painful stomach pain. The fever usually lasts 1-2 days and then has the first symptoms.

Malignant malaria, caused by Plasmodium falciparum, is a malignant malaria. Malignant malaria usually starts with symptoms similar to benign, but often leads to more severe complications. Such as anemia, respiratory problems, liver failure, kidney failure, number. Malignant malaria can affect the brain and central nervous system, which can even lead to death.

When malaria parasites enter the blood stream, they travel to the liver, where they multiply. Every few days, thousands of parasites are released from the liver into the bloodstream, where they destroy red blood cells. Some parasites remain in the liver, continue to multiply and release more parasites into the blood every few days.

Life cycle, cycle of parasitic malaria parasites in humans

During the life of the malaria parasite, each anopheles mosquito transmits a form of mobile infection (commonly called sporozoites) to a vertebrate host such as a human host # 2), which acts as a viral vector. Some sporozoites migrate through blood vessels into the hepatocytes, where they begin to produce asexual tissue (schizogony tissue) that produces thousands of merozoites. These merozoites infect new RBCs and start the cloned cycle, which creates 8 to 24 new merozoites, new cells and the cycle of infection of new cells.

The cycle of Plasmodium parasites in humans, there are four types of malaria parasites, although morphologically different but the cycle of disease in humans and mosquitoes is similar, including two phases: Phase Reproductive and clonal development in the human body; Sexual reproductive stage in Anopheles mosquitoes is contagious.

The stage of asexual reproduction in the human body is divided into two periods, the growth stage in the liver and the aseptic period in the red blood cells. The specific process is as follows: Anopheles mosquito bites (germ) mosquito bites, parasitic mosquito mosquito bubbled into the peripheral blood of humans. Intestinal mucus finding its way into the liver, because at that stage blood is not a suitable environment for the parasite to survive and grow, their time in the blood is less than an hour.

Intestinal infection invades liver cells and begins to divide, to a certain amount, causing the liver to burst to release new generations of parasites, a stage in the development of many parasites. From the liver to the blood, the parasite invades the red blood cells, which reproduce asexually there to sufficient levels to break down the red blood cells that release parasites, most of which will infiltrate red blood cells. Else to continue to reproduce cloning.

But some other parasite pieces become malarial, if mosquitoes absorb these gametocytes, they will develop a sexual cycle in the stomach of mosquitoes, if not smoked by mosquitoes, after a period of time. Will be destroyed. The time needed to complete the clonal clotting cycle depends on the Plasmodium species, which can range from 40 to 72 hours, so during this time the human body usually has malaria out of patches. Malnutrition of euphoria usually occurs in batches every 24 hours. Male and female mosquitoes are attracted to the stomach by the male and female gametes, which develop into male and female gametes, through sexual reproduction producing spermatogenesis. Spirulina is concentrated in the salivary gland of the mosquito that continues to infect others.

Malaria

Primary malaria: Malaria is first reported in patients, most commonly in new malaria patients or children 4 months to 4 years of age in malaria endemic areas. The clinical manifestation of primary malaria is a continuous fever of 39 to 40 degrees Celsius or a fever that overlaps (2-3 days of peak fever), ischemic and spastic syndrome. Initial diagnosis of malaria is relatively difficult, based on epidemiology and testing of malaria parasites

Recurrent malaria: Recurrent malaria is a malaria that has been reported in patients who have been infected with a malaria parasite and who had previously had malaria for more than 6 months. Recurrent malaria is seen in patients who have been previously treated but are not yet fully immunocompounded with malaria parasites in the blood (due to drug-resistant parasites or full-blown treatment) called near relapses or P. malaria. Vivax without the use of sleep deprivation medicine in the liver (hypnozoite) is called distal recurrence. Characteristics of recurrent malaria are:

Typical phase fever with 3 stages and marked cycle: sudden fever with chills lasting from 15 minutes to 1-2 hours, followed by heat lasting 2-4 hours and body temperature The peak is 40 – 41 degrees Celsius, the latter is sweating and the temperature decreases to normal. In addition, the patient manifested specific symptoms such as liver, large swollen spleen, the longer the liver, spleen bigger and stronger. Anemia is the most common symptom in patients with multiple recurrent malaria. In addition, there may be some other symptoms such as macular degeneration, mild systolic heart murmur, hyperpigmentation, dark circles.

Malaria in early stage: Malaria within the first 6 months. Malaria, therefore, includes both malaria and malaria within the first six months. Thus, the manifestation of early stage malaria may be primary or recurrent malaria. Treatment of malaria is now difficult because malaria parasites (especially P.falciparum) are resistant to many anti-malaria drugs. Moreover, Vietnam has about 35 million people living in the area of malaria endemicity (of which 15 million live in the area of severe malaria), so the need for effective treatment of malaria must be strictly adhered to the regimen Treatment of malaria prevention program.

The terrible devastation of the malaria epidemic is that it causes the brain to become damaged, hard to accumulate liquid in the lungs, and to impair important organs in the body such as the liver, spleen, causing severe anemia. , Low blood sugar, the most serious is the death.

By vnkhampha.com

Mùng Chamcham-sot xuat huyet

Yellow Fever – A serious infectious disease caused by mosquitoes

Content is translated from Vietnamese into English by Google Translate

Infectious disease

Yellow fever is a yellow fever virus caused by the Yellow Fever virus (Yellow fever virus), belonging to the Flavivirus family, the Flavivirus family, transmitted by mosquito bites. Yellow fever is mainly infected by Aedes mosquitoes and transmitted to humans. Diseases often arise in the rainy season, the climate is hot with a monthly average temperature of over 20 degrees Celsius, which is a strong stage of the Aedes mosquito. Since the 17th century, yellow fever has appeared in South America and Africa. By the nineteenth century, yellow fever was considered one of the most dangerous infectious diseases in the world. According to WHO, every year in Africa there are thousands of people with yellow fever, and in South America also have hundreds of infected people.

The symptoms

The initial symptoms of yellow fever include high fever, sudden onset with chills, headache, back pain, body aches, congestive face, nausea and vomiting, slow pulse, fatigue, Debilitating, peripheral blood leucopenia is reduced and there is mild jaundice. The majority of cases improve after these initial symptoms. However, about 15% of cases of yellow fever, after about a day of remission, disease to switch to severe stage of poisoning manifested by the symptoms: recurrent fever, abdominal pain, decreased urination, arrhythmias Heart, medium or heavy yellow skin. If this condition occurs there is a risk of mucosal bleeding (nosebleeds, bloody nose, vomiting blood or black stools), multiple organ damage, liver failure, kidney failure, cardiovascular collapse, Bacteria. Yellow fever is a disease with a high mortality rate, in severity from 20% to 50%, other forms under 5%.

People regardless of age, sex without immunization can be infected with yellow fever virus. However, people at higher risk for the disease are children and occupational occupants who must be routinely exposed to mosquitoes to commit suicide.

Treatment principle

Yellow fever is not a cure, so treat according to the principles: detection, diagnosis of the disease; Early treatment; The focus is mainly on symptomatic treatment such as fever reduction, pain relief, anti-hemorrhage; Anti-liver and kidney failure; Cardiovascular support, anti-allergy; Only use antibiotics when bacterial superinfection; Minimize late complications.

Measures to prevent epidemic

The most effective preventive measure for yellow fever to date is vaccination. Regular use of live vaccine, reduced virulence, high safety, made from chicken embryos. Vaccine is injected under the skin for people 9 months and older, single dose, effective over 90% and can maintain long-term antibody protection, but should have a booster shot every 10 years. In people at high risk in circulating areas. Yellow fever vaccines are prescribed for people who come from infected areas and go to areas with yellow fever.

Strengthen border health quarantine to promptly detect, treat and manage suspected yellow fever cases.

Propagandizing and educating the community to conduct regular surveillance measures. Handle environmental sanitation, control breeding and kill adult mosquitoes for Aedes mosquitoes in residential areas.

Health experts recommend, the anti-yellow fever measures are mainly anti-mosquito bites for patients; Collect and thoroughly disinfect the body fluids of the patient (blood, cerebrospinal fluid, semen, other secretions). The shortest duration of isolation is within 7 days, usually 14 days after onset. Incorporate a spray of insecticide (ULV spray, repopulated after 1 week) in the hospital and outbreak area, focusing on the mosquito Aedes transmitted disease can be parked and reproduce.

According to Thanh Lam –  VNA

6-hieu-nham-chet-nguoi-ve-benh-sot-xuat-huyet

Japanese encephalitis – the most dangerous mosquito-borne disease in children

Content is translated from Vietnamese into English by Google Translate

The disease may appear scattered throughout the year, but in May, June and July, the incidence of the disease is particularly high. While many parents do not know the cause or symptoms of the disease. Please provide the reader with the most essential knowledge about this dangerous disease so that you have a way to prevent and manage in time.

What is Japanese encephalitis?

This is an acute infection that damages the central nervous system. The Japanese encephalitis virus is the causative agent. The disease is predominantly in children under 15 years of age, especially in children aged 2-6 (75% of total cases).

Mode of transmission

Starting from the viral reservoir where pigs are the main animal. When the pigs suck the blood of the pig contains the virus and then burn the person will transmit the virus to humans. This is the only way to infect Japanese encephalitis. So far no human-to-human transmission.

It should be noted that: After being infected with the Japanese encephalitis virus, the pig is not sick, but dangerous in that it becomes a reservoir, maintaining the virus in nature, and is also the most important source of mosquitoes for mosquitoes. Japanese encephalitis virus transmission to humans.

There are many mosquitoes that are capable of transmitting the disease, but mainly are Culex Tritaeniorhynchus and Culex vishnui. These two species of mosquitoes usually live in wet rice fields, and they will fly to places where humans and animals live to suck up blood.

Expression of disease

The disease starts with fever and usually is very high (39-40 ° C). Patients also have manifestations such as chills, headache, fatigue, nausea or vomiting. This period lasts from 1 to 6 days. The next is the typical manifestations such as continued high fever with convulsions, confusion, excitement, struggle, drowsiness, drowsiness, drowsiness, headache, stiff neck, limb ache, loss country.

Severe consequences

Japanese encephalitis is one of the diseases that cause particularly severe sequelae. Highly pathogenic (10-20%) or major neurological sequelae such as epilepsy, decreased education, cretinism, paralysis, aphasia. Such neurological sequelae often account for more than 50% of people with the disease, which often causes disability, disability, and burdening family and social burdens.

Direction of dealing

The guiding principle is that all encephalitis patients in Japan must be treated in hospital. In the meantime, children with high fever should be given antipyretics such as Paracetamon, dosage 15mg / kg weight / time, maximum 4 times a day. Combination of cool head and groin can be combined, pay close attention to not ice cold.

The child should be taken to the nearest hospital or medical facility immediately if the fever is higher than 12 hours or signs, such as nausea, vertigo, mental disorders.

Taking the baby to hospital and being treated promptly will minimize the sequelae of encephalitis in Japan, but otherwise the probability of life-long disability is enormous. Therefore, prevention is the best solution.

First of all, clean environment, clean air. Eliminate the stagnant water around the living area, kill mosquitoes mosquito larvae without conditions to reproduce. If the family has a breeding area, they need to be cleaned frequently. When sleeping in the mosquito net, mosquito repellant is also needed.

But the most effective preventive measure is the vaccination against Japanese encephalitis to create active immunity. The vaccination program requires 3 doses: two shots 1-2 weeks apart, the third shot repeated after 1 year. Japanese Encephalitis vaccine starts at 1 year of age.

Post-injection mild reactions may include local redness, pain, fever, headache. These signs will go away on their own after a few days. Almost all serious side effects are very rare. They need to be vaccinated on schedule because if the vaccine is not effective, the child’s immunity will decrease, sometimes it will lose its effect.

All reasons for vaccination must be consulted by doctors, usually contraindications to vaccination when children with high fever, severe dysmotics, cardiovascular, kidney, acute liver, is progressing, young Too hypersensitive or allergic to vaccines.

KAUU NGA (With the advice and information support of Pediatrician Nguyen Trung Ha, French-Vietnamese Hospital, Hanoi)

Sot do muoi chich

7 dangerous diseases caused by mosquitoes

Content is translated from Vietnamese into English by Google Translate

Not only does the Zika virus outbreak cause mosquitoes, it is also responsible for spreading a series of dangerous diseases such as dengue fever, malaria or Japanese encephalitis.
A report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says more than 1.5 million people worldwide die each year and hundreds of millions of people are infected with mosquitoes. Below is a list of dangerous diseases caused by mosquito bites.

Zika Virus

Zika virus was first found in Africa in the 1940s, then spread to South, Central America, Mexico, the Caribbean, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands. The disease is transmitted mainly through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. For most people, the symptoms of the virus are mild: fever, rash, joint pain, red-eye and self-healing within a week.

However, scientists are suspected that the disease poses a risk to pregnant women and the fetus, which can cause congenital malformations, which can lead to small brains. Small head disease causes children not to develop adequately, develop mental retardation and other problems. There is no specific anti-Zika vaccine. The CDC recommends that pregnant women avoid travel to affected areas.

West Nile virus infection

West Nile virus is caused by mosquitoes. This disease is common in animals and birds but recently it has been reported that the virus has been found in human cells. It spreads through saliva and from mother to baby through breast-feeding. Most infected people do not have any symptoms. About 1 in 5 people have fever, flu, fatigue, diarrhea, joint pain, vomiting, rash. In some severe cases, the disease can cause serious infection, leading to seizures, swelling of the brain, meningitis, even death.

Japanese encephalitis

Japanese encephalitis is an infectious disease to the brain caused by mosquito bites. It is prevalent in Asia, the Western Pacific, Central and South America. Some serious symptoms of the disease include high fever, convulsions, coma and severe headache.

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Mosquitoes are infectious organisms that cause many diseases that are dangerous to humans. Photo: Telegraph.

Chikungunya virus fever

Chikungunya fever is a Chikungunya virus-mediated mosquito-borne illness. The disease was first discovered in Asia, India, then spread to Europe and the Americas. Common symptoms of the disease include headache, vomiting, back pain, skin rash and joint pain that last a few weeks. Patients need to rest and replenish plenty of water until the symptoms disappear.

Dengue

Dengue fever is one of the most dangerous diseases caused by mosquitoes. It mainly occurs in people in tropical and subtropical climates such as Puerto Rico, the Pacific Islands, Latin America and Southeast Asia. When a dengue fever occurs, the person may have fever, rash, headache, bruising and bleeding, more severe stomach pain, diarrhea, subcutaneous haemorrhage. Dengue now has vaccines.

Yellow fever

Yellow fever is a common disease in Africa and South America. It is a form of hemorrhagic fever without treatment. After a period of severe illness, 15% of patients had complications with higher fever, jaundice (skin and whites of the eyes turned yellow) and internal bleeding. About half of patients with complications die. The disease has preventive vaccines, so you should get vaccinated if you want to travel to African or Latin American countries.

Fever

Malaria is a disease that causes more than 600,000 deaths a year worldwide. The cause of malaria is that female Anopheles mosquitoes transmit Plasmodium parasite to human body through bite. High fever, chills, and severe influenza-like symptoms can be fatal if left untreated. Diseases can be prevented by getting sleep deprivation, insect repellent, long sleeves, and can be treated, but it still causes many deaths.

According to Zing.vn

Mùng Chamcham-sot xuat huyet

Notes to remember to prevent dengue

Content is translated from Vietnamese into English by Google Translate

When the outbreak of dengue fever is coming, learn how to protect yourself!

The rainy season is the period of mosquitoes and larch thrush grows, leading to the risk of dengue infection on a large scale. Mushroom ChamCham mosquito racing automatically find out the mechanism of disease as well as how to handle and prevent.

Mung chamchamosot comes to the medal